Fall and winter can mean traveling and gathering indoors with friends and family. These guidelines can help us keep each other safe from COVID-19.
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Find answers to your vaccine questions
If you have questions about a COVID-19 vaccine, it’s important to get your questions answered. Here you can find answers about safety, how the vaccine works, and when and where to get the vaccine.
Safe & effective
Are the COVID-19 vaccines safe?
Yes. The COVID-19 vaccines that are being given in Oregon are safe. The vaccines have been tested with thousands of people around the world. Black, Indigenous, Latino/a, Asian American, Pacific Islander and people of color have chosen to be part of these research studies to make sure the vaccines are safe for their communities. These tests have shown that all of the vaccines are safe, and they work to protect people from getting very sick with COVID-19.
How do the vaccines work?
Like all vaccines, the COVID-19 vaccine teaches your body to fight the virus and protect you from getting sick. The vaccine is given as a shot to the upper arm. For some kinds of the vaccine, you will need to get more than one shot. Your second shot will be 3 or 4 weeks after your first. If you get this type of vaccine, it is important for you to get both shots for the vaccine to work.
Can I get COVID-19 from the vaccine?
No, you cannot get COVID-19 from the vaccine.
What is the difference between the COVID-19 vaccines that are available?
Several manufacturers have produced safe and effective FDA-authorized vaccines. All of the vaccines have been and continue to be tested for safety, and all of them are proven to be very effective at preventing severe illness and hospitalizations.
None of the vaccines contain the live COVID-19 virus, so you can’t get COVID-19 from the vaccines.
More information about the different vaccines is available on the CDC website in English, Spanish, Korean, Vietnamese and Simplified Chinese.
Learn more from the Oregon Health Authority
Who is eligible for which vaccine?
Who is eligible for which vaccine?
6 months and older:
12 and older:
18 and older:
Johnson & Johnson
I’m pregnant or may become pregnant. Can I get a COVID-19 vaccine?
Yes, the COVID-19 vaccines are safe even if you are pregnant, breastfeeding, trying to get pregnant, or might become pregnant in the future. There is no evidence that COVID-19 vaccines will cause problems with pregnancy or the ability to become pregnant. Consult with your doctor if you have questions about the COVID-19 vaccine and pregnancy.
If you are pregnant, have recently given birth or might become pregnant in the future, COVID-19 vaccines help prevent serious illness, death and complications during pregnancy.
Do I have to pay for the vaccine?
If you have health insurance through the government or an employer, the cost of the vaccine should be minimal, if any. If you do not have health insurance, there will likely be a cost associated with the vaccine. Call 211 for help finding health insurance, a health care clinic or provider in your community.
Do I have to be a U.S. citizen to get the vaccine?
Everyone can get the COVID-19 vaccine, no matter your immigration status. You may be asked for information such as your name and phone number when you get the vaccine, but that information is private and won’t be shared with anyone. It is important for everyone who lives in Oregon to get the vaccine.
What to expect
Are there any side effects?
After getting the vaccine, you might experience some common side effects, like a fever, a sore arm or fatigue. This is normal and means the vaccine is working and strengthening your immune response to be able to fight off the virus. Side effects should go away in a few days. Apply a cold pack, drink plenty of water and get lots of rest. Over-the-counter pain relievers like Advil and Tylenol can also help.
Side effects and what to do:
Sore arm: Apply an ice pack
Tiredness: Rest when needed
Headache, fever, chills: Rest, take a pain reliever. If fever is 102° or higher, call a doctor.
Muscle aches, soreness: Take a pain reliever. Apply heat or ice pack.
Trouble breathing: Call 911
What happens after I get the vaccine?
Even after you get the vaccine, you may still be able to spread COVID-19. So, keep following safety steps to protect yourself and your loved ones:
Wear a mask or face covering where required or recommended
Stay away from others if you’re sick
Wash your hands often
Try to stay 6 feet apart from people you don’t live with
Keep gatherings small and outdoors when possible
When indoors, increase fresh air by opening a window or running a fan
What is “herd immunity?”
You may hear people talk about “community immunity” or “herd immunity.” When you get the COVID-19 vaccine, your body learns how to fight the virus. This is called “immunity.” Community immunity happens when enough people have gotten the vaccine to stop the spread of the virus, protecting the whole community. Until then, it’s still safest to follow mask guidelines where required or recommended to keep groups small even after you get the vaccine, to help protect the entire community.
What are variants?
Over time, all viruses mutate and change, sometimes creating stronger, more harmful versions of themselves. Other times they become less harmful, but perhaps more contagious. Whatever the mutations look like, they are called “variants” of the virus. Delta and Omicron are examples of COVID-19 variants that have spread across the globe.
Scientists are always on the lookout for new COVID-19 variants. They use a process called genetic sequencing to identify them, either from positive COVID-19 test samples or from wastewater samples taken from dozens of wastewater treatment plants across Oregon. Wastewater monitoring is especially effective at identifying variants because it doesn’t rely on people having symptoms or positive COVID-19 test results. It only relies on the contents of our wastewater, and we know that COVID-19 virus particles live in our feces and urine. Wastewater monitoring also tells us where variants are circulating within the state.
By tracking variants in these ways, public health experts can learn and provide the following information for each variant:
Level of contagiousness
Severity of COVID-19 illness it can cause
Vaccine and booster effectiveness
Effectiveness of COVID-19 treatments
For data about COVID-19 variants circulating in Oregon, check out Oregon Health Authority’s COVID-19 variant dashboard, updated weekly. To learn about variants nationwide, check out the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website, which includes a regularly updated variant data tracker.
Vaccines and boosters remain our best protection against COVID-19 infection, spread and severe illness. Additional precautions such as wearing masks around others and social distancing may be appropriate in some situations.